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A Different Point of View

by John R. Majka



       AN EXPERIMENT

       Let us assume that there is a charged particle in free space.  There
       is an observer  which  is  at  rest  with  respect  to  the  charged
       particle.

       This observer "sees" the gravitational field and the  electric field
       of this particle.

       Let us now  add  a  second observer.  The second observer is exactly
       like the first  observer  except  that  it  is  travelling  at  some
       constant speed, v,  which  is  less than the speed  of  light,  with
       respect to the first observer and the charged particle.

       This second observer  also  "sees"  the  gravitational field and the
       electric field of  the  charged  particle.    However,  this  second
       observer also "sees"  a  magnetic  field  surrounding   the  charged
       particle.

       Now, we will  add  a  third observer which is identical to the first
       two observers except that this observer  is  travelling at the speed
       of light relative to the first observer and to the charged particle
       .
       According to the Theory of Relativity, the third observer must "see"
       an electromagnetic wave  at  the  location  of the charged  particle
       since their relative speed is the speed of light.

       At the same time, the three observers see the charged particle
       differently.

       At a relative speed of zero, the observer "sees" a mass and an
       electric field.

       At a relative speed other than zero but less than that of light, the
       second observer "sees"  a  mass,  an  electric  field and a magnetic
       field.

       At a relative  speed  of  light,   the   third  observer  "sees"  an
       electromagnetic wave with  no gravitational field  and  no  electric
       field other than  that  associated  with  the  electromagnetic  wave
       itself.

       HYPOTHESIS

       The hypothesis is that as the relative speed of a charged particle
       increases from zero to that of light, the particle appears to change
       to an electromagnetic wave because of the expansion of the magnetic
       field.  This magnetic  field  combines   with  some  of  the  static
       electric field, in proportion to the energy of the  magnetic  field,
       to form an electromagnetic wave.

       At the speed  of light, the electric field is entirely combined with
       the magnetic field and the particle  appears  as  an electromagnetic
       wave.

       At speeds less  than  that  of  light,  the magnetic  field  of  the
       electromagnetic wave collapses.  The collapsing field distorts or
       twists space-time which appears to us as a gravitational field.

       Thus, it is  the  distortion  of  space-time  which appears to us as
       "mass" rather than "mass" causing the distortion.

       JUSTIFICATION

       Energy Density

       This hypothesis seems to be justified by equations from classical
       physics.  The equation  describing   the   energy   density  of  the
       particle's magnetic field,  Um ,  is:

                                 Um  =  B2 / ( 2uo )

                where uo is the magnetic permeability of free space


       The equation describing  the  energy  density  of   the   particle's
       electric field,  Ue ,  is:

                                    Ue  =  eo E2

                where eo  is the electric permittivity of free space

       The total energy,  Ut,  of  the  electric  and  magnetic  field of a
       particle travelling at some speed,  v,  is the sum of these two
       equations.  Converting to like terms and combining terms, the total
       energy equation is:

                           Ut  =  ( eo E2 / 2) ( 1 + v2 /c2 )


       If we now let  V = C, the equation becomes:

                                    Ut  =  eo E2

       which is also  the  energy  density  equation  of an electromagnetic
       wave.

       Classical physics equations also show that the direction of the
       magnetic field of a charged particle, travelling at some speed, is
       such that the Poynting Vector cross product is satisfied.

       That is, E x  H  =  I.

       Duality

       The hypothesis is also supported  by  experiments  which  have shown
       that charged particles travelling at a high speed exhibit duality.

       That is, when  travelling at high speeds, charged particles  exhibit
       particle characteristics and  electromagnetic  wave characteristics.
       If, as is hypothesized, the magnetic  field  combines with a portion
       of the static  electric  field  to  create an electromagnetic  wave,
       duality is expected.

       Since the particle is only partially an electromagnetic wave, it
       should exhibit duality at speeds less than light.

       OBJECTIONS

       Mass Increase

       Bucherer Experiment

       The accepted theory is that mass increases as speed increases.  The
       finding by Bucherer in 1908, that the electric field to mass (e/m)
       ratio is less  for  high speed particles, has been accepted as proof
       of an increase in mass.

       The hypothesis proposes that the reason for this finding is not that
       the mass has increased but rather  that  the  electric field and the
       mass have decreased.

       That part of  the  electric field which combines with  the  magnetic
       field to create  an  electromagnetic  field  can  not participate in
       static charge measurements.

       Therefore, those experiments measuring  e/m  will show a lower value
       for high speed particles than for slower particles.

       Momentum Selector

       Experiments with particle accelerators seem to show an increase in
       mass with an increase in the speed of a particle.

       After being accelerated,  charged  particles  are passed  through  a
       velocity selector which passes only those particles which are
       travelling at a predetermined speed.

       Immediately, the particles  are  passed  through a momentum selector
       which is a uniform magnetic field.   This  magnetic field produces a
       constant acceleration on the particle which causes  the  particle to
       travel in a circular path.

       The radius of the path is proportional to the linear momentum of the
       particle.  Since momentum   is  proportional  to  the  mass  of  the
       particle, it is  assumed  that  the  radius  of  the  path  is  then
       proportional to the mass of the particle.

       Experiments have shown that the higher the speed  of  the  particle,
       the greater the  radius  through the momentum selector.  It has been
       assumed from these experiments that  the  greater radius is due to a
       greater mass.

       The hypothesis states  that  the  apparent  mass  of   the  particle
       decreases with relative  speed  and that the magnetic field combines
       with a portion of the electric field  to  produce an electromagnetic
       wave.

       A decrease in   apparent  mass  should  be  observed   in   particle
       accelerator experiments by  a  decrease in the radius of the path of
       the particle if mass were the determining factor.

       However, electromagnetic waves also have a linear momentum and this
       momentum is not affected by an external magnetic field.

       When passed through  a momentum selector,  an  electromagnetic  wave
       would pass straight through and not describe a circular path.

       Since the electromagnetic wave is characteristic  of  the  particle,
       it's path is  the  same as the particle's path.  The linear momentum
       of the electromagnetic  wave  adds  to  that  of  the  particle  and
       increases the radius of the path.

       CHARACTERISTIC VELOCITY OF SPACE

       It has been assumed that electromagnetic waves can  travel  only  at
       the speed of light.  The hypothesis proposes that there is an
       electromagnetic wave which   is  a  characteristic  of  any  charged
       particle travelling at any relative speed greater than zero and less
       than the speed of light.

       Since electromagnetic waves travel through transmission lines and
       through space, it is possible to  model  their  propagation  through
       space by a transmission line analogy.

       Transmission lines and  space  share  common parameters.   The  most
       notable are the  parameters  of  distributed inductance (or magnetic
       permeability) in henries  per  meter,  distributed  capacitance  (or
       electric permittivity) in   farads   per   meter,     characteristic
       impedance in Ohms and characteristic velocity in meters per second.

       Models of transmission  lines  are basic in the study of electricity
       and electronics.  A model circuit diagram describing a typical, real
       transmission line is shown in Figure 1.

       The inductance, L,   is   in   terms  of  henries  per  meter.   The
       capacitance , C, is in terms of farads per meter and the resistance,
       R, is in terms of Ohms per meter.

       Note that the circuit diagram basically consists of one RLC circuit
       repeated for the length of the transmission  line.   The resistance,
       R, is responsible for losses in transmission lines.

       In an "ideal" transmission line, without losses, the  resistance  is
       ignored.  Since it   seems  that  an  electromagnetic  wave  travels
       through space without losses, we  may  assume  that the model for an
       ideal transmission line is adequate for an analysis of free space.

       Also, since the circuit segment is repeated for the  length  of  the
       transmission line, the analysis of one segment is sufficient.

       Figure 2 shows the circuit diagram for an ideal transmission line.

       Circuit modeling involves determining the voltages and currents
       through the circuit.  By Ohms Law (E = I x Z), the voltages and
       currents are related through impedances.  (Note: Impedance is
       mathematically treated as a resistance.

       It differs from  a  resistance  in  that  there are no energy losses
       through an impedance.) Figure 3  shows  the  same  circuit  with the
       impedances of the circuit elements.

       The values of  the  impedances  are  shown  in  typical   electrical
       analysis notation.  Since   the  impedance  of  an  inductor  varies
       directly with the frequency of the  current  through  it  or voltage
       applied to it, the impedance is in terms of the frequency, jw.

       Since the impedance  of  a  capacitor  varies  inversely   with  the
       frequency of the  current  through  it or voltage applied to it, the
       impedance is in  terms  of  the  inverse   frequency,   1/jw.    (In
       electrical analysis, since  the  symbol  "i"  is used  to  represent
       current flow, the symbol "j" is used to represent the square root of
       -1 and the  symbol, w or omega, is used to represent frequency where
       w = 2 pi f.)

       It can be seen that this circuit is also the circuit of a series L-C
       circuit.  To go from a transmission  line  model  to  a  series  L-C
       circuit model all we need do is change the terms of  the  parameters
       from henries/meter and  farads/meter  to  henries  and  farads.  The
       normalized transfer function, H(jw), of such a circuit is:

                             H(jw)  =  1/( w2  -  wo2)

       The symbol  w  represents the frequency of the signal applied to the
       circuit.  The symbol wo represents the resonant frequency of the
       circuit and it is numerically equal to the square root of  (1/LC).

       The resonant frequency is the frequency preferred by the circuit.

       If a signal  was applied to the  circuit  and  it  was  not  at  the
       resonant frequency, the  circuit  would  offer an impedance  to  the
       signal.

       If a signal at the resonant frequency was applied to the circuit,
       the circuit would  offer  no impedance.  The reason for this is that
       the impedance of  the  inductor   (jw)   varies  directly  with  the
       frequency of the applied signal.

       The impedance of  the  capacitor  (1/jw) varies inversely  with  the
       frequency of the  applied  signal.   At  the resonant frequency, the
       magnitude of the impedance offered by the inductor and the capacitor
       are equal.

       Impedances due to inductors and capacitors  are  vector  quantities.
       The direction of  the  inductor's impedance vector  varies  directly
       with the frequency of the applied signal in the positive direction.

       The direction of   the  capacitor's  impedance  vector  also  varies
       directly with the  frequency  of  the  applied  signal  but  in  the
       negative direction.

       At resonance, the  magnitudes of the impedances are  equal  but  the
       vectors are 180  degrees  out  of  phase  with  each  other and thus
       cancel.  At resonance, the circuit offers no impedance.

       The values for L and C in a series  L-C  circuit  are  in  terms  of
       henries and farads.  The resonant frequency, wo,  is  equal  to  the
       square root of (1/LC).

       The resonant frequency, then, is in terms of 1/second or Hertz.

       If we were  to substitute henries per meter and farads per meter for
       the values of the circuit elements, then resonance would be in terms
       of meters per second.

       Instead of a resonant frequency we would have a resonant velocity.

       Indeed, for transmission lines, the  velocity  of propagation is the
       square root of (1/LC).

       The speed of  light  is the square root of (1/uoeo)  which  are  the
       magnetic permeability and electric permittivity of free space.

       Therefore, we may assume that the speed of light is the resonant
       velocity of free space.

       The series L-C circuit does not forbid frequencies other than the
       resonant frequency but it does provide an impedance to them.

       Similarly, we may assume that the universe does not forbid speeds
       other than the  speed  of  light  but  would provide an impedance to
       them.

       Electromagnetic waves, which   are    characteristic    of   charged
       particles, can travel at speeds other than the speed of light.

       We should note that the series L-C circuit does not prohibit
       frequencies greater than the resonant frequency.

       Since the analogy  between series L-C circuits and  free  space  has
       held in other  circumstances  we may assume that space also does not
       prohibit speeds greater than resonant  speed  but  will  provide  an
       impedance to them.

       STEADY-STATE IMPEDANCES

       The hypothesis predicts that electromagnetic waves can travel at
       speeds other than at the speed of light.

       At light speed,  the universe offers no impedance to the propagation
       of electromagnetic waves.

       At other than light speeds, it is  expected  that  the universe will
       provide an impedance to these waves.

       We are familiar with speeds less than light.  At a zero relative
       speed, the "stopped" electromagnetic wave appears  as  a  "particle"
       and exhibits a gravitational field and an electric field.

       In the series  L-C  circuit,  the  impedance encountered by a signal
       with a frequency  of  zero  Hertz   is   provided  entirely  by  the
       capacitance.  As the  frequency  of  the  signal is  increased,  the
       impedance of the capacitor is reduced.

       Similarly, as the speed of a particle increases, the effects of the
       static electric field are decreased.

       Similarly, we may compare the impedance of the inductor to the
       magnetic field of a particle in relative motion.

       At zero Hertz,  there  is no impedance offered by the inductor and a
       "particle" at zero relative speed  has  no  magnetic  field.  As the
       frequency of the  applied  signal to the circuit is  increased,  the
       impedance provided by the inductor is increased.

       As the speed  of the particle increases, the effects of the magnetic
       field are increased.

       At frequencies less than the resonant  frequency,  the  impedance of
       the circuit is due primaily to the capacitor.

       At speeds less  than that of light, the electric field  is  dominant
       and the magnetic field is a function of the electric charge.

       At frequencies greater than the resonant frequency, the impedance of
       the circuit is due primarily to the inductor.  We may then assume
       that, by analogy, at speeds greater than the speed of light, the
       magnetic field will  dominate  and  will appear to be as constant as
       the electric field at sub-light speeds.

       At these speeds, it may appear that the electric field is a function
       of the magnetic field.

       To repeat for clarity:

                The impedance offered by  the capacitor is analogous to the
                electric field  of  a  charged particle and  the  impedance
                offered by the inductor is analogous to the magnetic field
                of a charged particle in motion.

       NON-STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS

       Let us assume a series L-C circuit, as described above, with no
       applied signal.  The  inductor  does  not  have  an initial magnetic
       field nor does the capacitor have an initial electric field.

       Now let us  apply  a  signal of zero  Hertz  and  the  circuit  will
       oscillate at its resonant frequency.

       In a real circuit, resistances cause the oscillation  to dampen.  In
       an ideal circuit,  the  oscillation  does  not die out and continues
       forever.

       If we assume the creation of a particle,  we  would  see  that  this
       particle causes a disturbance which propagates as an electromagnetic
       wave.

       Now we change  the  frequency  of  the  applied signal.   Again  the
       circuit will respond with an oscillation at it's resonant frequency.

       Similarly, if we accelerate a charged particle, an electromagnetic
       wave is generated.   Indeed,  any  change  in  the  frequency of the
       applied signal to  a  series  L-C circuit  will  generate  transient
       oscillations just as  acceleration  of  a  charged   particle   will
       generate electromagnetic waves.

       GRAVITY

       The electric and magnetic fields of a particle have been associated
       with the impedances offered by the capacitor and inductor of an
       analogous series L-C circuit.

       The hypothesis proposes  that  the  mass of a particle is due to the
       collapse of the magnetic field of the particle.

       Mass is not recognized directly but a gravitational field is.  A
       gravitational field is probably not a different form of a magnetic
       field.

       The gravitational field is, most likely,  a  result of the collapsed
       magnetic field.

       It is possible that the collapsed magnetic field pulls or twists the
       fabric of space-time  in  such  a  way as to form  what  we  call  a
       gravitational field.

       As the speed of the charged particle increases, the magnetic field
       expands and decreases  its  pull or twist which causes a decrease in
       the gravitational field.

       At speeds greater  than  light, the  hypothesis  predicts  that  the
       effects of the electric and magnetic fields will be reversed.

       At these speeds, it is likely that the magnetic fields  will  become
       polar and the  electric  fields  will  become  circular,  that is, a
       magnetic monopole will result.

       At speeds much greater than that of light, the electric field may be
       expected to collapse.

       This collapsed electric field may  also  pull or twist the fabric of
       space-time and form a type of field not now known.


       Vangard Notes

            Our researches  into the nature of gravity tend to support this
            paper.  It appears that ANY  FORM  OF  ENERGY  (i.e., acoustic,
            electric, magnetic, motional (scalar) fields,  etc...)  can  be
            properly driven   to  alter  the  energy/mass  relationship  to
            generate free energy, anti-gravity,  matter transport or matter
            integration - disintegration - transport.


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