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The Earth's "Center of Gravity"

Up or Down?

Author unknown


           Why was it that at the turn of  the century, the Geodetic Survey
           Department of both the French and United States governments made
           certain tests  which upset the Copernican theory,  then  DECIDED
           THAT THEY SHOULD BE KEPT SECRET?

           What, actually,  were  these  tests, and should they be repeated
           today, under the most severe test conditions?

       If you've ever watched a bricklayer  at  work, you've seen him use a
       plumb bob to determine the perpendicular so that  his  wall  will be
       erect and straight.  A plumb bob is simply a weight suspended on the
       end of a  cord.   It  acts  on  the  principle  of the attraction of
       gravity, or mass, and the weight always  points toward the center of
       gravity, which in  the  case  of the spherical Earth  is  its  exact
       center.

       A line formed by the cord of a plumb bob is at precisely a right
       angle from the horizontal.  It is a division of a plane surface into
       two 90 degree  angles.   By simply laying his bricks parallel to the
       line of the  plumb  bob,  the  bricklayer  builds  a  wall  that  is
       precisely erect.  If he did not use a plumb bob, there would be many
       more leaning towers of Pisa in the world.

       However, the plumb bob is not used only to erect buildings,  but  it
       is used to measure the distance of the sun.  Or any planet.  This is
       done by measuring  a precise horizontal distance on the Earth (which
       is naturally a curve, because the Earth is round), and since we know
       the circumference of the Earth, the  distance around it, thus we can
       calculate an exact  base for our proposed triangle  to  be  used  in
       measuring the distance of the sun.

       Then, by use  of a sectant, we can "shoot the sun" from both ends of
       this base line, and get a pair of  angles  which  are  slightly less
       than 90 degree angles because they are obviously not parallel to the
       perpendicular as determined by the plumb bob.

       We know that, given one side of a triangle, and two  of  its angles,
       we can calculate  the  length  of the other two sides.  Thus, we can
       tell how far the sun is from the Earth.

       It isn't quite this simple, because  we  don't know the precise size
       of the Earth,  (written  in  1965),  and  thus,  the  difference  in
       parallelness of the two perpendiculars we have achieved at both ends
       of our base line.

       It should be  obvious  to the reader that since the plumb bobs point
       AT THE CENTER OF THE EARTH, lines  projected  TO  the  center of the
       Earth WOULD MEET AT THAT CENTER, and likewise, lines  projected into
       space would continually move FURTHER APART.

       Thus we have a great interest in exactly HOW FAR IT IS TO THE CENTER
       OF THE EARTH,  in  order  to be ABSOLUTELY SURE of our two important
       angles in FIGURING PLANETARY DISTANCES.

       Sometime prior to 1901, the French  Government, wishing to determine
       more accurately the  ACTUAL SIZE OF THE EARTH, so  that  they  could
       revise and refine  their  calculations regarding the DISTANCE TO THE
       SUN, hit on a way to measure the difference in distance apart at the
       top of two lines perpendicular to  the  surface of the Earth and the
       bottom of those same two lines.

       They wanted a pair of lines long enough to give them  an appreciable
       measurement.  Obviously they  could  not  erect two parallel poles a
       mile high, but they did feel they  could  SUSPEND  two  plumb bobs A
       MILE DEEP INTO  A  MINE  SHAFT,  and  thus be able  to  MEASURE  THE
       DISTANCE APART AT  THE  TOP  AND  THE  DISTANCE APART AT THE BOTTOM,
       which WOULD BE SLIGHTLY LESS (at the  bottom).   They wanted to know
       exactly HOW MUCH LESS.

       The result of these tests were VERY STRANGE.  So  strange  that  the
       French Geodetic scientists  contacted the scientists of the American
       Geodetic Survey and conveyed their results to them, with the request
       that similar tests be conducted in this country.

       Officially, NOTHING WAS DONE FOR  SOME  YEARS.   But in 1901, one of
       the Geodetic surveyors happened to be working in the vicinity of the
       Tamarack mines near  Calumet,  Michigan.   He  contacted  the  chief
       engineer at Tamarack,   and  informed   him   of   the   information
       transmitted by the French government.

       Two mine shafts  were selected, and plumb lines EXACTLY  4,250  feet
       long were suspended IN EACH MINE.

       At the end  of  these lines a SIXTY POUND BOB was hung.  In order to
       PREVENT MOVEMENT THROUGH  A  HORIZONTAL   DIRECTION,  each  bob  was
       suspended in a tank of oil placed at the bottom of the mine shafts.

       In this way, it was reasoned, MAGNETIC FORCES COULD NOT AFFECT THEM.

       The lines used  to  suspend the bobs were No. 24 piano  wires.   For
       twenty-four hours the  lines  were  allowed  to  hang, so that there
       would be NO POSSIBILITY OF MOVEMENT from putting them in place still
       remaining in the lines.  The measurements were begun.

       It was then  that  it  was  discovered   that  the  French  Geodetic
       engineers had NOT MADE A MISTAKE.  Careful re-checking  proved  that
       the lines, CONTRARY  TO  EXPECTATIONS,  were  FARTHER  APART  AT THE
       BOTTOM THAN AT THE TOP!!

       There can be only ONE IMPLICATION  to  such  a  strange result - the
       center of gravity is not, as previously believed, at  the  center of
       the Earth, but  in  fact, IT MUST BE ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH,
       SOMEWHERE IN SPACE!!!

       If these two lines, formed by the  suspended plumb lines, were to be
       EXTENDED UPWARD, they would MEET SOMEWHERE in the void AWAY FROM THE
       EARTH, and that point, BY ALL THE RULES OF GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION,
       SHOULD BE THE CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THIS PLANET!

       Greatly puzzled, and  not a little disturbed, the Tamarack  engineer
       sent for Professor  McNair  of  the Michigan College of Mines.  With
       McNair there to check his results,  the experiment was repeated, the
       measurements gone over again, and BOTH MEN WERE CONVINCED  NO  ERROR
       HAD BEEN MADE.

       Professor McNair suggested  that the plumb bobs be changed to a NON-
       MAGNETIC metal to overcome ANY POSSIBILITY OF MAGNETIC ATTRACTION OR
       REPULSION DUE TO A MAGNETIC ORE BODY NEARBY.

       But when this  was  done, the SAME  FIGURES  WERE  ARRIVED  AT.   If
       magnetic influences had been at work, they would  HAVE  VARIED  WITH
       DIFFERENT METALS, BUT   T H E Y   D I D   N O T !!

       Now, suggested McNair,  it  would  be  a  good  idea  to PREVENT AIR
       CURRENTS from traveling up and down  the  mine shafts which might be
       affecting the plumb lines.  Thus, both mine shafts  were  SEALED  AT
       THE TOP.  Once more THE FIGURES REMAINED THE SAME.

       After trying many methods to vary the figures AND FAILING, Professor
       McNair gave up in COMPLETE BEWILDERMENT.

       These series of  tests  had  not gone on in complete secrecy, and it
       was inevitable that  news  of them  leaked  out.   It  leaked  to  a
       reporter of the  Milwaukee (Wisconsin) SENTINEL, who  published  the
       story.

       It stated the crux of the situation as follows :

           "The wires  were  supposed  to  hang parallel to each other (the
            reporter made  an error here,  THEY  SHOULD  HAVE  HUNG  CLOSER
            TOGETHER AT  THE  BOTTOM),  but  were FARTHER APART  BELOW  THE
            SURFACE than  they were AT THE SURFACE and no one has suggested
            anything that seems to cover the question."

       Professor McNair, when questioned,  stated  for  publication that he
       had proved that magnetic attraction from the Earth  or  the sides of
       the shaft DID NOT CAUSE THE STRANGE DIVERGENCE.

       Then he went  back  to  the  Michigan College of Mines and wiped the
       whole thing from his mind.  Apparently  this is true, for he made NO
       EFFORT to contact his colleagues or scientists to call  attention to
       the fact that  WHAT  THEY  WERE TEACHING about GRAVITATION and plumb
       lines DID NOT ACTUALLY HOLD TRUE  WHEN  PUT  TO  A  CONCLUSIVE FIELD
       TEST.

       However, we can  forgive  Professor  McNair  for his  reluctance  to
       pursue the matter  further,  because its implications ARE TREMENDOUS
       INDEED.  They are totally SHATTERING TO OUR CONCEPT OF THE UNIVERSE,
       and in fact, if they can be made  to  hold  true, MAKE A SHAMBLES OF
       ALL OUR PHYSICAL SCIENCES.

       Obviously Professor McNair  was  unwilling  to  so upset  his  daily
       routine.  Nor were the United States and French governments - for as
       the French put it,

            ".....the value  of  the  franc  will  remains  unchanged,  and
             bridges and buildings can still be built, SO WHY MAKE AN
             ISSUE OF IT??"

       However, Professor Hallock of Columbia University was of a different
       mind.  He heard  of  the  experiment  through  a  professor  at  the
       Michigan College.  He  held that this actually WAS  ATTRACTION  UPON
       THE PLUMB LINES,  and  in a very astute article, told how easily the
       matter could be settled by USING  PHOSPHOR  BRONZE  WIRES instead of
       piano wires, and LEAD BOBS for iron bobs.

       The Tamarack engineer, delighted to clear his mind of its confusion,
       followed these instructions  to  the  letter  -  and  came  up  with
       PRECISELY THE SAME MEASUREMENTS as before.

       When Professor Hallock  was informed of this result, he retired into
       a dignified and stony silence.  Not  so  the  Tamarack engineer.  He
       had decided that something was causing this phenomena,  and  he  was
       going to find out what it was.

       Plumb bobs suspended IN A SINGLE MINE gave TOO DELICATE A DIFFERENCE
       in measurement, and  after all, WERE NOT ACCURATE ENOUGH to give any
       reliable figures ON THE AMOUNT OF  DEVIATION,   (for  instance,  per
       mile), and whether or not the deviation had ANY RELATION TO THE SIZE
       OF THE EARTH.

       After all, it had originally been the purpose of the French Geodetic
       Survey to REFINE THE ACTUAL SIZE OF THE EARTH AS  THEN  KNOWN  (late
       1800's) to a  more  accurate  figure.   They  had  something in mind
       concerning artillery, as well as astronomy.

       A second series of experiments were conducted at Calumet (Michigan).
       This time TWO  ELEVATOR  SHAFTS  into  the mine were used INSTEAD OF
       ONE, those numbered two and five.

       These two were 4,250 feet APART,  and  were  also  4,250  feet DEEP.
       They were connected at the bottom by a perfectly straight transverse
       tunnel.

       Now, plumb bobs were hung in each shaft, and measurements were made.
       This time it was found that the plumb lines were 8.22 inches FARTHER
       APART AT THE BOTTOM of the pit than at the top.

       It did not  take  the Tamarack engineer long to discover  that  this
       figure exactly represents  the DIVERGENCE THAT WOULD BE NECESSARY TO
       COMPLETE A 360 DEGREE SPHERICAL CIRCUMFERENCE.  (in  other  words, a
       SHELL OF FORCE AROUND THE EARTH)

       There was only one difficulty - as expressed by the  plumb lines, it
       would be the  CIRCUMFERENCE  OF  THE  INSIDE OF A SPHERE AND NOT THE
       OUTSIDE!!

       Further, the center of gravity, as expressed by the angles formed by
       the plumb lines, would be approximately 4,000 MILES OUT IN SPACE!!

       Obviously THIS COULD NOT BE TRUE,  because  if  the  Chinese were to
       make calculations based on a similar pair of mine  shafts  in  their
       country, on the  OPPOSITE  SIDE  OF THE GLOBE, the center of gravity
       would be found to be 4000 miles IN THE OTHER DIRECTION!!

       The center of gravity, according to  the plumb lines, was a SPHERE'S
       SURFACE, some 16,000 MILES IN DIAMETER!!

       ANY PLACE, 4,000 MILES UP, WAS THE CENTER OF GRAVITY!!

       Can we blame the Tamarack engineer for going down  in  his  mine and
       maintaining a grim silence FROM THAT MOMENT ON??

       A United States Geodetic Survey crew for two years conducted further
       experiments, among them  measuring  the  surface  of  a long lake in
       Florida on the theory that WATER CONFORMS  TO  THE TRUE CURVATURE OF
       THE EARTH'S SURFACE, REGARDLESS OF HOW THE LAND MAY  BE, thus giving
       A TRUE LEVEL  -  only  to  find  that  WATER  CURVED  UPHILL IN EACH
       DIRECTION RATHER THAN DOWNHILL!!

       Can we blame them for deciding that  to give these startling figures
       to the world  would  HAVE  NO BEARING ON THE PRACTICAL  PROBLEMS  of
       life, and was  therefore  BEST  FORGOTTEN,  since an exploration was
       BEYOND THEM??

       However, others were making similar experiments, among them a mystic
       named Koresh (Cyrus Teed), who claimed  he  was the Christ, come for
       the second time.   In  spite  of  his  mysticism,   his   scientific
       measurements and experiments were NOT IN THE LEAST MYSTIC.

       He used the plumb bob to great advantage, for proof that the Earth's
       curvature was THE REVERSE of that USUALLY ACCEPTED AS TRUE, and
       thus claimed that  WE  LIVED ON THE INSIDE OF THE GLOBE, RATHER THAN
       THE OUTSIDE!!

       He accounted for the sun, the planets, the stars, the moon, gravity,
       etc. in a  very elaborate set of theories, but in spite of this, his
       discoveries also went by the board,  and  are  scarecely  remembered
       today, and NEVER MENTIONED IN SCIENTIFIC CIRCLES.

       Yet, the facts remain.  Plumb lines are FARTHER APART  AT THE BOTTOM
       THAN AT THE TOP.  What does it mean?  What is wrong with our concept
       of gravity, mass, electro-magnetism, the Earth's size and shape, our
       position in relation  to  other  bodies in space, the VERY NATURE OF
       PHYSICAL REALITY?

       From this point on, in this article, we will deviate from facts, and
       merely theories.  We ask no one to  take  what  we say seriously, as
       being presented as an explanation.

       The statements we  will  make  we  make  ONLY  FOR  THE  PURPOSE  OF
       ARGUMENT, and possibly  to  point a way toward further experiment in
       an effort to solve the mystery.

       First, the Earth   is   a   sphere    (with   certain   very   minor
       irregularities).  We live on the outside of it.

       The Moon circles  the Earth, and the Earth circles  the  Sun.   Some
       force holds them  all  in  orbit  and in their relationships to each
       other.  It is said that gravitation is that force.

       It is said the Moon's orbit is maintained  because the attraction of
       mass of both bodies is exactly counterbalanced by CENTRIFUGAL FORCE.

       The Earth system is maintained in its orbit about  the  sun  by  the
       same delicate balance.

       Could it be that THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS "ATTRACTION OR MASS?"

       Would not such  a  quality  in  mass have resulted, eons ago, in the
       whole Universe being GATHERED TOGETHER IN ONE CRUSHING SINGLE BODY?

       Some scientists say this is what  DID  HAPPEN,  and that there was a
       resultant terrific explosion  (the Big Bang theory),  and  that  the
       Universe is NOW  EXPANDING  (as  proved, they say by the "red shift"
       which shows the distant galaxies to  be  receding in every direction
       at a CONSTANTLY  INCREASING  SPEED,  the  more  distant   ones  just
       recently discovered at something like 90,000 miles per second).

       Does not this  increasing  speed  DISPROVE THEIR OWN THEORY, because
       shouldn't the speed of RETREAT FROM  THE  CENTRAL  POINT  (strangely
       enough our own  solar  system!) DECREASE as greater  distances  were
       reached? (the inverse square law)

       If there is  no  such  thing  as attraction of mass, then we are not
       bothered with any center of it.

       Could it be that the presence of  mass  (regardless  of  properties)
       merely causes A  DISTORTION  IN  ITS  IMMEDIATE AREA,  such  as  the
       curvature of light  noted  (as  predicted by Albert Einstein) around
       the sun during a solar eclipse?

       Thus, wouldn't a  plumb  line be deviated  IN  PROXIMITY  WITH  MASS
       simply BY REASON OF THE INTENSIFICATION of that mysterious agent of
       creation, an ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FIELD?  The best theory of creation to
       date is the  theory  of  an  electro-magnetic  field being placed in
       rotation, and thus  the  DRIVING   TO   ITS  CENTER,  in  a  literal
       CONDENSATION PROCESS, OF  MATTER,  to  form the central  body  of  a
       planet.

       Anyone who has  watched  a  whirlpool, or a whirlwind, has noted the
       POLAR "HOLES" IN BOTH ENDS.  If the  Earth  was  so formed, would it
       not be MANDATORY  that  it have A HOLE AT BOTH POLES,  AND  POSSIBLY
       EVEN BE HOLLOW?

       Do all planets  have  such holes?  Do we see evidence of them in the
       polar caps (clouds hiding the opening,  just  as  clouds perpetually
       shroud our own  poles)  of  Mars,  and  the mysterious  "hole  clear
       through" Mercury, the mysterious "red spot" of Jupiter, the rings of
       Saturn, etc.?

       If gravity (as Einstein finally said when he formed his last theory,
       the electro-magnetic field theory) is really NOT A THING AT ALL, but
       merely manifestations (along  with  electro-magnetism)  of SOMETHING
       ELSE (the electro-magnetic FIELD IN MOTION), then can we not account
       easily for the experiment of the plumb bobs and its strange result?

       Is there actually NO GRAVITY OUT  IN  SPACE  (outside  the  whirling
       electro-magnetic field) and  also,  NO INERTIAL MASS,  so  that  the
       recent proposal to  "sail  through  space"  on  aluminum sails which
       catch the infinitesimal energy of  the photon (light particles), and
       thus require no engines at all, is reasonable and practical?

       Is it not  true that the plumb lines are not straight  at  all,  but
       FOLLOW A CURVE dictated BY THE LINES OF FORCE of a WHIRLING ELECTRO-
       MAGNETIC FIELD?

       Is it not  true that the sun is seen NOT VIA LIGHT COMING TO US in a
       straight line, but actually A GIGANTIC  CURVE dictated by the master
       vortex of the Solar System's whirling electro-magnetic  field?  Thus
       it would be CONSIDERABLY NEARER than the 93,000,000 miles we believe
       its distance to be?

       If there is  no  such  thing  as  a  "straight  line"  (due  to  the
       time/space/gravity curvature) in this  sense  of the words, then are
       not all our measurements of astronomical distances  BASED ON INITIAL
       ERROR inherent in  the  incompatibility  of  angles  and  lines in a
       perpetually WHIRLING "CURVED" ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FIELD?

       Are gravity, magnetism  and  inertia   ONLY   ILLUSIONS  induced  AS
       PROPERTIES OF ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FIELDS?

       Is that why the plumb lines do not behave as they should;  why GYRO-
       COMPASSES DO NOT  WORK  WITHIN  150  MILES  OF THE "POLE;" why it is
       proposed to "sail" the seas of space  merely by the propulsive force
       of the "wind"  of  light  photons;  why we are developing  an  "ion-
       thrust" engine for space travel in spite of the fact that its thrust
       is COMPARABLE TO THAT OF A POCKET FLASHLIGHT?

       The sun, they say, has a very weak electro-magnetic field.  The Moon
       none at all.   Does  this  mean NO GRAVITY ON THE MOON?  NO INERTIA?
       NO MAGNETISM?

       A thousand questions  arise  from  the  stimulus of these two vexing
       plumb lines whose effects have been  so  disturbing  on the minds of
       those whose lips  remain sealed - because "it will  not  affect  the
       value of the franc..."

       Anyone with any  basis  in  physics at all will find these questions
       thronging through his mind.  We present  these  few  only to provide
       that "initial thrust" to your thinking, and to challenge  the owners
       of francs whose value is dubious in any event.

       Lastly, might we  suggest  to the scientists at Vandenburg Air Force
       Base, where the polar satellites  are  launched,  that  here, in the
       doubt cast on the scientific concept of gravity, mass  and  inertia,
       exists perhaps an  explanation  for  six  straight  failures to even
       locate a PERFECTLY  LAUNCHED  MISSLE   AFTER   IT  PASSES  INTO  THE
       MYSTERIOUS POLAR REACHES.

       That failure is  due  to  the  INERTIAL  GUIDANCE  SYSTEM  (rotating
       gyroscopes) that DEPENDS   FOR  ITS  FUNCTION  ON  REMAINING  IN  AN
       ELECTRO-MAGNETIC FIELD.

       At the poles, might it be that there  are "holes" in this field, and
       that your rockets are being lost in these holes,  propelled  by  TOO
       MUCH rocket thrust (not needed if there is low or no inertia) acting
       on little or no mass at all (inertia-wise)?

       The whole thing is something to think about, and certainly NOT TO BE
       HIDDEN beneath a pile of francs.  Would it be too much for us to ask
       that a body of recognized savants be assigned the task of conducting
       these experiments again,  in  the light of present-day knowledge and
       experience and implements,  to correct  our  impressions  concerning
       gravity, the true nature of electro-magnetism, and  such  relatively
       simple things as  where  or not a body of water's level CURVES UP OR
       DOWN??

       After all, it is our money that is  being spent shooting at a target
       that may not even be where we think it is?  A record  of 100% misses
       for Vandenburg is subject to questioning and re-evaluation!


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