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De Palma on Free Energy

By Bruce DePalma


       The following paper   by  Dr.  Bruce  DePalma  was  issued  with  no
       copyright as a gift to the world.   There  are no USA patents on the
       described technology.  The source for this was "The DePalma Research
       Papers" which was printed by

                            For The People,
                            P.O. 15999,
                            Tampa, FL 33684.

       Most of the figures mentioned could not be reproduced in this text
       file.  The following information appeared at the bottom of each page
       of the original document:

                            DePalma Energy Worldwide
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                            originated 29 April 1990

                                DIRECTLY FROM SPACE

                                by:   Bruce DePalma

       Abstract:  Based upon  an effect first discovered by Michael Faraday
                  in 1831, the N machine/Space  Power Generator (fig. 1) is
                  an electrical  machine  which  has  the   possibility  of
                  producing electrical   energy   with  significantly  less
                  mechanical power  input   than   the  presently  employed
                  induction machines.


       In the fall of 1831 when Michael Faraday performed the initial
       experiments which resulted in the discovery of the first dynamo, he
       also described a phenomenon which has yet to be understood  in terms
       of conventional electrical theory.

       In paragraphs 255, 256, and 257 of his diary (fig. 2, ref. 1), dated
       December 26, 1831, is described the experiment of cementing a copper
       disc on top  of a cylinder magnet, paper intervening, and supporting
       the magnet by means of a string so  as  to  rotate axially, with the
       wires of a galvanometer connected to the edge and axis of the copper

       When this combination  was caused to rotate an electrical  potential
       was found to  be  created.   The  polarity  and the magnitude of the
       potential was found to be the same  as  would  occur  if  the copper
       plate had moved and the magnet remained still.

       Faraday spent his  latter  years pondering the relationship  between
       the situation of  magnet  and  disc  rotating together vis-a-vis the
       situation of fixed magnet and disc rotating independently.

       He explained the  situation  by positing  the  assumption  that  the
       magnetic field of a magnet remained stationary in space  whilst  the
       metal of the  magnet revolved axially.  Thus a relative motion would
       exist between the  moving  metal  of  the  magnet  and  the  posited
       stationary flux lines  giving rise to the expected  potential  which
       results from the motion of a wire through a magnetic field.

       Through the years many attempts have been made to observe whether
       magnetic field lines rotate with the motion of a magnet which is
       rotated about an axis connecting its poles.

       To date, no  conclusive proof has been found that the lines of force
       rotate with the magnet or not (ref.  2, 3).  One experimenter Djuric
       (ref. 4) goes so far as to say:

              "That no experiment with the generalized homopolar generator
               or its classical form can resolve the puzzle,  which  one of
               the two logically possible hypotheses is correct, the moving
               force line   hypothesis   or   the   nonmoving   force  line

       In 1978, after having studied the anomalous inertial and
       gravitational phenomena of the precessing gyroscope through numerous
       experiments carried out  in the prior seven years, it occurred to me
       that anomalous electrical phenomena might occur if the gyroscope was
       magnetized, the magnetic lines of  force  being parallel to the axis
       of rotation.

       Following in the footsteps of Faraday, I reasoned the metal of the
       magnetized gyroscope moving through its own magnetic field, when
       rotated would produce an electrical potential between  the  axle and
       the outer edge of the rotating magnetized flywheel.

       The voltage thus  created  would be described by the well known laws
       of electrical induction  relating   to  the  relative  motion  of  a
       conducting wire and a magnetic field.

       As is well  known,  Lenz's  Law  applies  to  the forces  which  are
       generated between a  current carrying wire moving in the vicinity of
       a magnetic pole  wherein  the  current   through  the  wire  is  the
       resultant of the  electrical potential generated by  the  motion  of
       said wire being applied to an external load.

       In the case   of  the  rotating  cylindrical  magnetized  conductor,
       however, it is not clear how Lenz's Law could be applied.  In static
       measurements, current can be passed  through  a  cylindrical  magnet
       between the outer circumference and the central axle passing through
       its poles.

       The torque developed will be the same as one would get by suspending
       a copper disc over one of the magnetic poles and holding  the magnet
       fixed (ref. 5, 6).  The question is:

                since the  rotating  gyroscope possesses anomalous inertial
                and gravitational properties,

                would the back torque of  the rotating magnetized gyroscope
                be the same with a given amount of current  passing through
                it as  would  be  if  the rotation were blocked and a fixed
                torque measurement made.

       Despite the simplicity  of  the   one   piece   rotating  magnetized
       conductor, N machine/SPG,  compared  to  the  two   piece   rotating
       induction machine or  Faraday  disc, in the time since its discovery
       in 1831, no one had performed a test  to  see  if the same generator
       principles were at  work  as  one found in a conventional  induction

       In 1978 in  Santa  Barbara,  California, a large electromagnetically
       excited N machine/SPG was constructed, the "Sunburst" machine.  This
       machine was independently tested by  Dr. Robert Kincheloe, Professor
       Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University (ref. 7).

       The abstract of this report quotes:

            "Known for over 150 years, the Faraday homopolar generator
            has been claimed to provide a basis for so-called "free
            energy" generation, in that under certain conditions the
            extraction of electrical output energy is not reflected as
            a corresponding mechanical load to the driving source.

            During 1985 I was invited to test such a machine.  While it
            did not perform as claimed, repeatable data showed anomalous
            results that did not seem to conform to traditional theory.

            In particular, under certain assumptions about internally
            generated output voltage, the increase in input power when
            power was extracted from the generator over that measured
            due to frictional losses with the generator unexcited seemed
            to be either about 13% or 20% of the maximum computed
            generated power, depending on interpretation."

       Figure (3) and (4) show the construction of the "Sunburst" machine.
       Figure (5) is a graph of the input and output power vs. speed.

       After a thoroughgoing critique and examination of his data Kincheloe

            "DePalma may have been right in that there is indeed a
            situation here whereby energy is being obtained from a
            previously unknown and unexplained source.

            This is a conclusion that most scientists and engineers
            would reject out of hand as being a violation of accepted
            laws of physics, and if true has incredible implications."

       The "Sunburst" machine   was  an  experiment  to  determine  if  the
       rotating magnet N machine/SPG operating  as  an electrical generator
       would produce less back torque than a conventional induction machine
       generating the same current.

       A practical SPG  would employ permanent or super-conducting  magnets
       eliminating the burden   of   excitation   of   an  open  flux  path

       Replacement of sliding carbon-graphite  or  copper-graphite  brushes
       with liquid metal  contacts  reduces mechanical friction  losses  by
       80%.  Brush voltage  drop  is  negligible  in  liquid  metal sliding

       Both of these  techniques are employed  in  the  machines  currently
       produced (ref. 8,  9).   Applied  to  the  "Sunburst"   design   the
       techniques of liquid  metal current collectors and permanent magnets
       for the field  excitation  could   result   in  a  machine  with  an
       output/input power ratio of 5:1.

       A parallel program of SPG R&D has been taking place in India since
       1978.  P. Tewari of the Indian Atomic Power Board had developed a
       generalized theory of  matter  and energy which showed  that  energy
       could be developed  from  the vacuum by positing a structure for the

       Having received the experimental results  of  the "Sunburst" machine
       he instituted an r&d program to develop practical  versions  of  the
       SPG for general use.  Tewari has constructed N machine/SPG apparatus
       which produces excess output power over that required to rotate the
       generator when all  losses  have  been  subtracted  from  the output
       generated power (ref. 10, 11, 12, 13).

       The phenomenon of direct extraction of electrical energy from space
       has a simple explanation based on a re-interpretation of magnetism.

       Heretofore it has  been  believed that the magnetic field comes from
       the magnet.  The  phenomenon of  the  magnetic  field  can  also  be
       explained by positing a primordial energy field, which, in the first
       order is uniform and homogeneous.

       The highly anisotropic condition of the material of  the  magnet, if
       it be the permanent variety, or the condition created by the passage
       of electric current  through  a solenoid, causes a distortion of the
       isotropic field which we know as magnetism.

       Passing a conducting wire through the spatial distortion adjacent to
       the pole of a magnet elicits the electric  potential across the ends
       of the wire.

       Field magnets in electric generators do not run down  nor  does more
       electrical excitation need  be  applied no matter how much energy is
       being drawn from  the  machine.    This  is  because  the  generated
       electrical energy is being drawn from the spatial distortion created
       by the field magnets.

       The drag and energy penalty of the conventional two piece induction
       electrical generator arises from the incomplete understanding of
       magnetism and the nature of the magnetic field.

       If we accept the notion that all electricity generation  arises from
       distortions of a  primordial  energy  field  then  we  could look to
       methods of creating  the  appropriate   distortion  and  concomitant
       energy generation without invoking Lenz's Law.

       Based on this  interpretation  the rotating magnetized  conductor  N
       machine/SPG is a  method of eliciting the spatial energy without the
       drag associated with the two piece machines.

       The further conclusion is that mechanical  energy is not "converted"
       to electrical energy  in  an  electrical  generator.   The  idea  of
       "conversion" is simply an unproven assumption.  Different electrical
       machines produce energy with different efficiencies.

       In these days  of  depletion  of natural resources there would be no
       reason to employ  the induction generator  of  150  years  ago  when
       electricity could be generated much more efficiently  by the simpler
       one-piece N machine/SPG.


            (1)  Martin, 1932, Thomas Martin (ed.), "Faraday's Diary",
                 Bell, 1932, in five volumes.

            (2)  Cramp and Norgrove, 1936, "Some Investigations on the
                 Axial Spin of a Magnet and on the Laws of Electromagnetic
                 Induction", Journal of The Institute of Electrical
                 Engineers, vol. 78, 1936, pp. 481-491.

            (3)  Crooks, Litvin, and Matthews, 1978, "One Piece Faraday
                 Generator:  A Paradoxical Experiment from 1851",  Am.
                 J. Phys., vol. 46(7), July 1978, pp. 729-731.

            (4)  Djuric, 1975, "Spinning Magnetic Fields", J. Appl. Phys.,
                 vol. 46, (2), February 1975, pp. 679-688.

            (5)  Kimball, 1926, A. L. Kimball, Jr., "Torque on a Revolving
                 Cylindrical Magnet", Phys. Rev., vol. 28, December 1928,
                 pp. 1302-1308.

            (6)  Zeleny, 1924, Zeleny and Page, "Torque on a Cylindrical
                 Magnet through which a Current is Passing", Phys. Rev.,
                 vol. 24, 14 July 1924, pp. 544-559.

            (7)  Kincheloe, 1986, "Homopolar 'Free Energy' Generator Test",
                 paper presented at the 1986 meeting of The Society for
                 Scientific Exploration, San Francisco, California, June
                 21, 1986, revised February 1, 1987.  Address:  Dr. W.
                 Robert Kincheloe, 401 Durand/ITV, Stanford, California

            (8)  DePalma, 1988, "Initial Testing Report of DePalma N-1
                 Electrical Generator", Magnets in Your Future, vol. 3(8),
                 August 1988, pp. 4-7, 27,  P.O. Box 580, Temecula,
                 California 92390

            (9)  United States Department of Commerce, "Business Daily",
                 Tuesday, January 2, 1990, issue no. PSA-9999.  "David
                 Taylor Research Center, code 3311, Annapolis, Maryland
                 21402-5067:  A Research and Development Source Sought.
                 Broad Agency Announcement for Homopolar Machinery and
                 Current Collector Technology."  BAA details requirements
                 for homopolar machinery for ship propulsion.  Power
                 range 25,000 to 50,000 horsepower at anticipated current
                 levels of 50,000 to 100,000 amperes.  Superconducting
                 magnets and liquid metal current collectors are called
                 for.  "Field magnets can be normal or superconductive and
                 located internal to the rotor or external to the stator."
                 Describes combination of N machine/SPG connected to
                 Faraday disc motor for "integrated electric drive" ship

            (10) Paramahamsa    Tewari,    "Beyond    Matter",    Printwell
                 Publications, Aligarh, India, 1984.

            (11) Paramahamsa Tewari, "Generation of Electrical Power from
                 Absolute Vacuum by High Speed Rotation of Conducting
                 Magnetic Cylinder", Magnets in Your Future, vol. 1 (8),
                 August 1986, P.O. Box 580, Temecula, California 92390.

           (12) Paramahamsa Tewari, "Violation of Conservation of Charge
                 in Space Power Generation Phenomenon", Paramahamsa Tewari,
                 Chief Project Engineer, KAIGA Project, Nuclear Power
                 Corporation, Kodibagh-581303, Karwar, Karnataka, India.

            (13) Paramahamsa Tewari, "Detection of Stationary and Dynamic
                 Space Substratum", paper presented at 1990 Borderland
                 Sciences Congress, Santa Barbara, California, June 14-17,
                 1990.  Borderland Sciences, P.O. Box 429, Garberville,
                 California 95440-049, U.S.A.

                 (The following figure had an accompanying drawing
                 which could not be reproduced in this text file.)

       Figure (2) Test  of  a  rotating magnet by Michael Faraday, December
       26, 1831.

            255.  A copper disc was cemented on the top of a cylinder
            magnet, paper intervening, the top being the marked pole;
            the magnet supported so as to rotate by means of string,

            and the wires of the galvanometer connected with the edge
            and the axis of the copper plate.

       Vangard notes...

            The diagram below is to clarify  the  arrangement  of the coil,
            copper disc and paper insulator.

                          String --------> |
                                      |    :    |
                        Suspended     |    :    |
                        Cylinder ---> |    :    |
                        Magnet        |    : <----------Magnetic AXIS
                                      |    :    |
                                      |    :    |
                                      |    :    |
              Paper Insulator -----> ======:======
                   Copper Disc ----> ******:******<-------| (edge)
                                          /|\             |
             * * * * * * * *               |          ____|____
          Copper Disc glued to       (axis)|         |         |
          paper insulator glued to         |_________|         |
          end of magnet pole                         |  Volt   |
             * * * * * * * *                         |  Meter  |

            The following  description  from  Faraday's   notes  is  a  bit
            imprecise, it  seems  that  the  term  screw  indicates  CW and
            unscrew indicates CCW.

            If this is the correct translation then this is simply a change
            in direction of the induced current.

            This comes about when both  the  copper  disc  and  magnet  are
            rotated together.

            When the   magnet   and   disc  (are  rotated)  together,  (by)
            unscrew(ing or adjusting the  ammeter)  the  marked  end of the
            needle went west.

            When the  magnet  and  disc  (are)  rotated (by)  screw(ing  or
            adjusting the ammeter) the marked end of the needle went east.

            256.  This direction is the same as that which would have
            resulted if the copper had moved and the magnet been still.

            Hence moving the magnet causes no difference PROVIDED the
            copper moves.  A rotating and a stationary magnet cause the
            same effect.

            257.  The disc was then loosed from the magnet and held still
            whilst the magnet itself was revolved; but now no effect upon
            the galvanometer.

            Hence it  appears  that,  of  the  metal  circuit  in which the
            current is  to  be  formed,  different  parts  must  move  with
            DIFFERENT ANGULAR VELOCITIES. (another KEY principle)

            If with the same, no current is produced, i.e.  when both parts
            are external to the magnet.

           (The other figures were not reproducible in this text file.)

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