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The Void Theory

by Steven L. Comee
1106 Waverly Heights Drive
Thousand Oaks
CA 91360
USA




                           What is the cause of matter?
                               (Why does it exist?)

                            What is matter, physically?
                           What is the cause of gravity?
                     What is the cause of the electric charge?
                   Why are the electrons, protons, and neutrons
                          the only predominate particles?
          Why are neutrons necessary to hold an atom's nucleus together?
                  Why do neutron stars form but not proton stars?

                    Why is the speed of light the value it is?
                   Why do Quarks have charges of 1/3, 2/3 and 1?

                             Why do electrons tunnel?
                         Why does superconductivity occur?

             Why do a very few people have "supernatural" experiences?
                           Why does a "big bang" occur?

                 How can one travel to the stars and back in only
                a few hours elapsed time (at the point of origin)?
                           How can you make antimatter?

       These are the  questions that this theory answers directly.  The key
       question to answer is what is Matter?

       --------------------------------------------------------------------


       To start, let's  go back to the basics.  One condition of Einstein's
       Theory of Relativity was that space  and  time  were  isotropic  and
       homogeneous.

       If matter is physically something, then one would need  at least one
       more dimension to   account   for  it.   Maybe  not.   Consider  the
       opposite; maybe matter ISN'T SOMETHING.

       By considering the  law  of  thermodynamics  of  increasing  entropy
       (disorder), quantum mechanics,  and  any  form of Murphy's  Law  all
       blended together, I propose the following :

       HYPOTHESIS

          The Universe is not perfect because it is elastic to a limit.

          This elasticity  means  that  a  void  (or missing dimension) may
          occur anywhere at any time.

          The size of a void is quantized.   A  uniform  random probability
          distribution function governs the creation and destruction of the
          voids throughout the universe.

          The density of this function is high enough such  that  voids can
          coalesce (since  there  are  larger  particles  than voids in the
          universe.)

       DISCUSSION:

          A void  causes  a  distortion   to   space/time  because  of  the
       elasticity of space and time.  The distortion is thus infinite.

          A void  is  an  imperfection  in  the homogeneous  and  isotropic
       assumption.  This distortion  to space and time due to the existence
       of a void is what we call gravity  and the void is called a particle
       of matter.

          Gravity is always an attractive force because space/time tries to
       minimize the distortion  (that  is,  to be stretched  as  little  as
       possible).  There is  no  such  thing  as  anti-gravity  (due to the
       definition of gravity).

          If there is a limit to how elastic space/time is, then there is a
       limit to how fast a void can travel  through space/time as well as a
       limit to how big a void may get.  This is why the speed  of light is
       the value it is and why a big bang occurs; they are a direct measure
       of how elastic  space/time  is.   They are the limits to which space
       and time may be stretched.

          Time flow (time velocity or dt)  is not associated with space (it
       is orthogonal) but with each void because the void  either  does  or
       does not exist at an absolute location at an absolute time.

          If the time flow is positive, it is called matter.

          If the time flow is negative, it is called antimatter.

          If the time flow is zero, it is called energy.


          This then  offers  an explanation as to why matter and antimatter
       annihilate each other just by touching, producing energy; their time
       flows cancel each other, and particles  with  zero  time  flows  are
       energy.

          The particles still exist, which is why conservation  of momentum
       is maintained.  It  also  explains  the  particle  nature  of energy
       (light).

          It is important to note that the elastic limit applies to the sum
       of the speed  through space AND  TIME  because  this  gives  us  two
       important boundary conditions.

          If the absolute spatial speed is 0, then the absolute  time  flow
       is at a  maximum;  and if the absolute spatial speed is the speed of
       light, then the absolute time flow is zero.

          Thus in order to move about in  space,  you  must give up some of
       your time flow.   To  travel  anywhere in the universe  "instantly",
       your absolute time flow must be zero.

          If you  go  back  to  the  four  basic equations that make up the
       Theory of Relativity and add time flow, you get a set of four linear
       differential equations.  When using  a  constant  velocity  (Special
       Relativity) or constant  acceleration  (General Relativity)  between
       two frames of   reference,   the   derivatives   for   velocity   or
       acceleration must be used (because dt varies).

          The boundary  conditions  needed   to   solve   the  differential
       equations is the elastic limit of space/time.

          Imagine all three spatial velocity vectors represented by one.

       --------------------------------------------------------------------
       Vangard comments...
            (This is what John W. Keely discovered in the late 1800's,
                        he found that each of the 3 vectors
             formed varying percentages of the total flow of 100% and
                    that these percentages could be CONTROLLED
                         to generate a variety of effects)
       --------------------------------------------------------------------

          This is where the Theory of Relativity stops and  uses  the speed
       of light.  But  the  universe has four vectors.  Now add a time flow
       vector to the spatial vector.

          The resultant universe velocity  vector  has  an absolute maximum
       value and is the new boundary condition (which is determined  by the
       elasticity of space/time).

          What events  lead  up  to  a  "big  bang"?   Just  as  a  rock is
       pulverized when subjected to enough  pressure,  there  should  be  a
       point at which  a  void has stretched the universe  to  its  elastic
       limit.

          When the  limit  is  reached, the void cannot be moving spatially
       and thus its time flow is at the  maximum.   When  the void tries to
       exceed the spatial/time limit, that point in the universe snaps back
       to its original shape.

          This requires  that the void disappear instantly.  It can do this
       by changing all of its time flow to spatial velocity.

          Thus its maximum time flow jumps  to  zero (turns to energy), and
       it must pulverize  to  obey  the conservation of momentum.   A  "big
       bang" is just  a local event and will eventually disperse the matter
       back to the norm.  Thus the question  of an open/closed universe has
       no meaning.  It is neither.  The universe is a concept.

          Tunnelling is  possible when a small void (say  an  electron)  is
       perfectly aligned (travelling   perpendicularly)  with  the  missing
       dimension of a larger void.  It can then pass right through.

          Resistance can be viewed as the  result  of the attractive forces
       (due to time  flow)  between  an  electron  and the  quarks  in  the
       nucleus.

          If a  geometric  configuration  of  the neutrons and protons in a
       material could be arranged (as in  a  crystal)  so  as to shield the
       positive time flowing  voids  from  external electrons,  then  those
       electrons should see no resistance.  Temperature and pressure affect
       crystal structure, so they should also affect resistance.

          If an  event in the future generates voids which travel backwards
       in time faster  than the event travels  forward  in  time,  then  it
       should be possible to foretell that particular event.

          Similarly, if an event in the past generates voids  which  travel
       forward in time  faster than the event travels forward in time, then
       it should be possible to relive the event.

          Mathematically, a void is the absence  of at least one dimension.
       Thus there are 15 unique types of voids or elementary particles. and
       one quasi-particle.  This  number  is determined by  the  number  of
       coordinates used.  Visually,  this  can  be shown in a binary table,
       where 1 represents the presence of that dimension :

                                x    y    z    t

                      1         0    0    0    0
                      2         0    0    0    1
                      3         0    0    1    0
                      4         0    0    1    1
                      5         0    1    0    0
                      6         0    1    0    1
                      7         0    1    1    0
                      8         0    1    1    1
                      9         1    0    0    0
                     10         1    0    0    1
                     11         1    0    1    0
                     12         1    1    0    0
                     13         1    1    0    1
                     14         1    1    1    0
                     15         1    1    1    1

              Level 15 is the "normal" or (empty) universe.


       Now lets' rearrange   these  entries  according  to  the  number  of
       dimensions missing and whether time is present:

                        dimensions            anti-
         x   y   z    t   missing   charge   particle   comment

         1   1   1    1      0         0       yes      neutrino (when t is
                                                         out  of phase) (no
                                                        mass)
         0   1   1    1      1        1/3      yes      quark (d - green)
         1   0   1    1      1        1/3      yes      quark (d - blue)
         1   1   0    1      1        1/3      yes      quark (d - red)
         1   1   1    0      1         0       no       photon (no mass)

       --------------------------------------------------------------------

         0   0   1    1      2        2/3      yes      quark (u - red)
         0   1   0    1      2        2/3      yes      quark (u - blue)
         1   0   0    1      2        2/3      yes      quark (u - green)
         0   1   1    0      2        1/3      no
         1   0   1    0      2        1/3      no
         1   1   0    0      2        1/3      no

       --------------------------------------------------------------------

         0   0   0    1      3         1       yes      electron
         0   0   1    0      3        2/3      no
         0   1   0    0      3        2/3      no
         1   0   0    0      3        2/3      no

       --------------------------------------------------------------------

         0   0   0    0      4         1       no

       --------------------------------------------------------------------

       Note the quark symmetry :                 u         d
                                        red     001       110
                                        blue    010       101
                                        green   100       011

       --------------------------------------------------------------------

          "t" must  be  present  for  a  particle  to  have  an  antimatter
       counterpart since antimatter  is  nothing  more  than  the  particle
       travelling backwards in time.

          What is more intriguing are the  particles  which are missing the
       time dimension.  This means they only exist for an instant (t=n) and
       hence cannot be detected directly like an electron.   These  are the
       virtual or "transfer" particles in most unified theories.

          Charge is  a measure of the number of spatial dimensions missing.
       The positive and negative attribute  normally associated with charge
       really belongs to the time dimension.

          A negative  charge  (say  an  electron) is really  an  antimatter
       particle.

          A proton is composed of three quarks, one of which is antimatter,
       and two of the three quarks in a neutron are antimatter.  By placing
       the "sign" of  a  charge with the time dimension, one can understand
       where all the  antimatter  went  when   cosmologists   ask  symmetry
       questions.  It is all around us.

          Matter/antimatter annihilation occurs only when  all of the voids
       in each particle  match  dimensionally,  which  is why the quarks in
       protons and neutrons coexist; they are not identical.

          The table could be further subdivided  for  each  entry with more
       than one dimension  missing  in  which  at least one  dimension  was
       traveling forward in  time  and  the  remaining dimensions traveling
       backwards in time.

          Two voids (charges) travelling  in  the same time direction repel
       each other because  they  are  trying to occupy the  same  time  and
       space.

          "Opposite charges" attract because their opposite time flows pull
       the voids together and allow the voids to occupy the same space (and
       hence annihilation).

          This force  between  stationary voids which have a time dimension
       is called the electrostatic force.  When the voids are moving, it is
       called the electromagnetic force.

          From the above table, one can see  why there are only six quarks.
       Like a crystal,  a  larger  particle  can be built up  from  smaller
       particles.

          A composite  particle is stable when all three spatial dimensions
       are in symmetry (i.e. an integer charge number).  A particle missing
       one dimension will  attract  another   particle   missing  the  same
       dimension with the opposite time flow and missing  at  least  one of
       the remaining dimensions, and repel those missing the same dimension
       with the same  time  flow.   The  force  that  governs the making of
       composite particles is called the strong force.

          How the  strong  force behaves  (three  ways)  depends  upon  the
       structure of the particle.

          Symmetry can  consist  of  two  voids  in  one spatial  dimension
       travelling in opposite  time directions.  It can also be one spatial
       dimension travelling opposite time  directions.  Or it can just be a
       void in each spatial dimension.

          The three colors associated with each quark is nothing  more than
       the three ways  that  the voids within a quark may be oriented.  The
       d-quarks have one void and the u-quarks have two voids.

          Making a composite particle is somewhat like balancing a chemical
       equation.  And by  looking at the  void  symmetry,  one  can  get  a
       feeling for a particle's behavior.

          For example;  a neutron has its voids travelling in opposite time
       directions (zero net time flow) and  a  proton  has  three voids all
       travelling forward in time (positive net time flow):

                   Neutron
                   ( 0  0  1  +)   ->   ( 0  0  1  +)   |
                   ( 0  1  1  -)   ->   ( 0  1  1  -)   |
                   ( 1  0  1  -)   ->   ( 0  1  0  +)   |
                                        ( 0  0  0  -)      electron
                                        ( 1  1  1  -)      antineutrino

                   Geometric structure:
                   +  -           + - +
                   -

          When particles break up or combine, there may  be  a  transfer of
       voids between particles.   At  the instant of transfer, at least one
       of the eight virtual particles is involved.

          The force that transfers a void  between  particles is called the
       weak force.  Since  this  transfer  of voids takes  place  within  a
       composite particle, the  weak  force  is  only effective for a short
       time and hence for only a short distance.

          The electrostatic, electromagnetic,  strong,  and  weak force are
       all the result  of the force between voids due to  their  time  flow
       direction, whereas gravity  is the result of the force between voids
       due to their physical existence.

          Thus one could look at gravity  as  being orthogonal to the other
       forces and hence cannot be unified with them, other  than  they  are
       all the result of a void.

          Gravity results  in a larger single void to reduce the distortion
       to space/time whereas the other forces  all  result in a combination
       of individual voids   in   trying   to  eliminate   the   space/time
       distortion.  That is  why  gravity  is  weaker than the other forces
       (reduce verse eliminate).

       EXPLANATION (PROOF) OF WHY THE UNIVERSE  IS  COMPOSED  OF ELECTRONS,
       PROTONS, AND NEUTRONS:

          A stable (long lived) particle is one in which all  three spatial
       dimensions have a  net void each.  From the above table, an electron
       fits this requirement right away.

          The next step would be to consider groups consisting of particles
       missing one and two dimensions:

                   One Dimension            Two Dimensions
                      0 1 1                    0 0 1
                      1 0 1                    0 1 0
                      1 1 0                    1 0 0

       Now list all  possible  combinations  of  one  and  two  dimensional
       particles:

          011  011  011       101  101  101      110  110  110
          001  010  100       001  010  100      001  010  100

       Now list all  possible  combinations  of  one  and  two  dimensional
       particles:

          011+  011+  011+    101+  101+  101+    110+  110+  110+
          001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+

          011+  011+  011+    101+  101+  101+    110+  110+  110+
          001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-

          011-  011-  011-    101-  101-  101-    110-  110-  110-
          001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+    001+  010+  100+

          011-  011-  011-    101-  101-  101-    110-  110-  110-
          001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-    001-  010-  100-

       Now select those pairs which can be  attached.   That is they have a
       (+) and a (-) void in the dimension.  Note that two  one-dimensional
       or two two-dimensional joining is matter/antimatter annihilation and
       thus cannot exist.

          011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110-
          001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+

       In all cases, there is a dangling void.  Thus there can be no stable
       joining between just   one   one-dimensional   void   and  one  two-
       dimensional void.

       One solution would  be  to  add one  more  one-dimensional  void  to
       balance the dangling  void,  just  like  a chemical  equation.   All
       possible additions are:

         011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+
         011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011-

         101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+
         101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101-

         110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+
         110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110-

       Only the dangling  void  can attract the one-dimensional void.  This
       reduces the combinations to:

         011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110-
         001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+
         101+ 110+ 101- 110- 011+ 110+ 011- 110- 011+ 101+ 011- 101-
         ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
         111+ 111+ 111- 111- 111+ 111+ 111- 111- 111+ 111+ 111- 111-

       Note that by adding all the voids  in each spatial dimension you get
       either 111- or 111+.  A particle whose sum is 111- is the antimatter
       equivalent of 111+.

       Since one of the basic assumptions was that there  is  no  preferred
       coordinate system, including  time,  then these twelve particles are
       really the same.

       Due to the right handed coordinate  system  chose,  each  of the six
       particles is simply the same particle rotated one way or another.

       This three quark  particle is stable because all three spatial voids
       are neutralized ( 0 + with a 0 -),  resulting in a sum of 111.  Thus
       it is natural to call this particle a neutron.

       The only other  solution  would  be to add one more  two-dimensional
       void to balance the dangling void, just like a chemical equation.
       All possible additions are:

         001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+
         001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001-

         010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+
         010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010-

         100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+
         100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100-

       Only the dangling   void   can   attract  the  two-dimensional  void
       (otherwise there would  still be  an  unbalanced  dimension).   This
       reduces the combinations to :

         011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110-
         001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+
         010- 001- 010+ 001+ 100- 001- 100+ 001+ 100- 010- 100+ 010+
         ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
         000- 000- 000+ 000+ 000- 000- 000+ 000+ 000- 000- 000+ 000+

       Note that by adding all the voids in each spatial dimension  you get
       either 000- or 000+.  A particle whose sum is 000- is the antimatter
       equivalent of 000+.   Since  one  of  the basic assumptions was that
       there is no preferred coordinate system,  including, time then these
       twelve particles are really the same.

       Due to time, the six 000- are the same as the six 000+.   Due to the
       right handed coordinate  system chosen, each of the six particles is
       simply the same particle rotated one way or another.

       This three quark  particle  is  stable  because  all  three  spatial
       dimension are cancelled (1+ with a 1-), resulting in  a  sum of 000.
       This is a particle with a charge of one.  Thus it is natural to call
       this particle a proton.

       NEUTRONS: THE BINDING BUILDING BLOCKS

          By looking  at the geometric structure of the quarks that make up
       a neutron, one can easily see that there are two negative attachment
       points and two positive attachment  points.  This allows neutrons to
       bind to themselves or to protons.

          Protons only have two positive attachment points.   Thus  protons
       cannot bind to themselves.

               Neutron to Neutron              Neutron to Proton
                    ( Star )                   ( Helium nucleus )

                    + - + -                      + - +---+
                    -   -                        -       -
                    + - + -                      +---+ - +
                    -   -


          For more than one proton to be in an atom's nucleus there must be
       neutrons to bind  them  together.   Geometry can be used to show why
       the neutrons do not increase uniformly in the periodic table as well
       as why there are isotopes of various stabilities.

          Neutron stars can form but not proton stars because only neutrons
       can bind to themselves.


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