## The Void Theory

by Steven L. Comee

1106 Waverly Heights Drive

Thousand Oaks

CA 91360

USA

What is the cause of matter? (Why does it exist?) What is matter, physically? What is the cause of gravity? What is the cause of the electric charge? Why are the electrons, protons, and neutrons the only predominate particles? Why are neutrons necessary to hold an atom's nucleus together? Why do neutron stars form but not proton stars? Why is the speed of light the value it is? Why do Quarks have charges of 1/3, 2/3 and 1? Why do electrons tunnel? Why does superconductivity occur? Why do a very few people have "supernatural" experiences? Why does a "big bang" occur? How can one travel to the stars and back in only a few hours elapsed time (at the point of origin)? How can you make antimatter? These are the questions that this theory answers directly. The key question to answer is what is Matter? -------------------------------------------------------------------- To start, let's go back to the basics. One condition of Einstein's Theory of Relativity was that space and time were isotropic and homogeneous. If matter is physically something, then one would need at least one more dimension to account for it. Maybe not. Consider the opposite; maybe matter ISN'T SOMETHING. By considering the law of thermodynamics of increasing entropy (disorder), quantum mechanics, and any form of Murphy's Law all blended together, I propose the following : HYPOTHESIS The Universe is not perfect because it is elastic to a limit. This elasticity means that a void (or missing dimension) may occur anywhere at any time. The size of a void is quantized. A uniform random probability distribution function governs the creation and destruction of the voids throughout the universe. The density of this function is high enough such that voids can coalesce (since there are larger particles than voids in the universe.) DISCUSSION: A void causes a distortion to space/time because of the elasticity of space and time. The distortion is thus infinite. A void is an imperfection in the homogeneous and isotropic assumption. This distortion to space and time due to the existence of a void is what we call gravity and the void is called a particle of matter. Gravity is always an attractive force because space/time tries to minimize the distortion (that is, to be stretched as little as possible). There is no such thing as anti-gravity (due to the definition of gravity). If there is a limit to how elastic space/time is, then there is a limit to how fast a void can travel through space/time as well as a limit to how big a void may get. This is why the speed of light is the value it is and why a big bang occurs; they are a direct measure of how elastic space/time is. They are the limits to which space and time may be stretched. Time flow (time velocity or dt) is not associated with space (it is orthogonal) but with each void because the void either does or does not exist at an absolute location at an absolute time. If the time flow is positive, it is called matter. If the time flow is negative, it is called antimatter. If the time flow is zero, it is called energy. This then offers an explanation as to why matter and antimatter annihilate each other just by touching, producing energy; their time flows cancel each other, and particles with zero time flows are energy. The particles still exist, which is why conservation of momentum is maintained. It also explains the particle nature of energy (light). It is important to note that the elastic limit applies to the sum of the speed through space AND TIME because this gives us two important boundary conditions. If the absolute spatial speed is 0, then the absolute time flow is at a maximum; and if the absolute spatial speed is the speed of light, then the absolute time flow is zero. Thus in order to move about in space, you must give up some of your time flow. To travel anywhere in the universe "instantly", your absolute time flow must be zero. If you go back to the four basic equations that make up the Theory of Relativity and add time flow, you get a set of four linear differential equations. When using a constant velocity (Special Relativity) or constant acceleration (General Relativity) between two frames of reference, the derivatives for velocity or acceleration must be used (because dt varies). The boundary conditions needed to solve the differential equations is the elastic limit of space/time. Imagine all three spatial velocity vectors represented by one. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Vangard comments... (This is what John W. Keely discovered in the late 1800's, he found that each of the 3 vectors formed varying percentages of the total flow of 100% and that these percentages could be CONTROLLED to generate a variety of effects) -------------------------------------------------------------------- This is where the Theory of Relativity stops and uses the speed of light. But the universe has four vectors. Now add a time flow vector to the spatial vector. The resultant universe velocity vector has an absolute maximum value and is the new boundary condition (which is determined by the elasticity of space/time). What events lead up to a "big bang"? Just as a rock is pulverized when subjected to enough pressure, there should be a point at which a void has stretched the universe to its elastic limit. When the limit is reached, the void cannot be moving spatially and thus its time flow is at the maximum. When the void tries to exceed the spatial/time limit, that point in the universe snaps back to its original shape. This requires that the void disappear instantly. It can do this by changing all of its time flow to spatial velocity. Thus its maximum time flow jumps to zero (turns to energy), and it must pulverize to obey the conservation of momentum. A "big bang" is just a local event and will eventually disperse the matter back to the norm. Thus the question of an open/closed universe has no meaning. It is neither. The universe is a concept. Tunnelling is possible when a small void (say an electron) is perfectly aligned (travelling perpendicularly) with the missing dimension of a larger void. It can then pass right through. Resistance can be viewed as the result of the attractive forces (due to time flow) between an electron and the quarks in the nucleus. If a geometric configuration of the neutrons and protons in a material could be arranged (as in a crystal) so as to shield the positive time flowing voids from external electrons, then those electrons should see no resistance. Temperature and pressure affect crystal structure, so they should also affect resistance. If an event in the future generates voids which travel backwards in time faster than the event travels forward in time, then it should be possible to foretell that particular event. Similarly, if an event in the past generates voids which travel forward in time faster than the event travels forward in time, then it should be possible to relive the event. Mathematically, a void is the absence of at least one dimension. Thus there are 15 unique types of voids or elementary particles. and one quasi-particle. This number is determined by the number of coordinates used. Visually, this can be shown in a binary table, where 1 represents the presence of that dimension : x y z t 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 1 5 0 1 0 0 6 0 1 0 1 7 0 1 1 0 8 0 1 1 1 9 1 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 1 0 12 1 1 0 0 13 1 1 0 1 14 1 1 1 0 15 1 1 1 1 Level 15 is the "normal" or (empty) universe. Now lets' rearrange these entries according to the number of dimensions missing and whether time is present: dimensions anti- x y z t missing charge particle comment 1 1 1 1 0 0 yes neutrino (when t is out of phase) (no mass) 0 1 1 1 1 1/3 yes quark (d - green) 1 0 1 1 1 1/3 yes quark (d - blue) 1 1 0 1 1 1/3 yes quark (d - red) 1 1 1 0 1 0 no photon (no mass) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 0 1 1 2 2/3 yes quark (u - red) 0 1 0 1 2 2/3 yes quark (u - blue) 1 0 0 1 2 2/3 yes quark (u - green) 0 1 1 0 2 1/3 no 1 0 1 0 2 1/3 no 1 1 0 0 2 1/3 no -------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 0 0 1 3 1 yes electron 0 0 1 0 3 2/3 no 0 1 0 0 3 2/3 no 1 0 0 0 3 2/3 no -------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 0 0 0 4 1 no -------------------------------------------------------------------- Note the quark symmetry : u d red 001 110 blue 010 101 green 100 011 -------------------------------------------------------------------- "t" must be present for a particle to have an antimatter counterpart since antimatter is nothing more than the particle travelling backwards in time. What is more intriguing are the particles which are missing the time dimension. This means they only exist for an instant (t=n) and hence cannot be detected directly like an electron. These are the virtual or "transfer" particles in most unified theories. Charge is a measure of the number of spatial dimensions missing. The positive and negative attribute normally associated with charge really belongs to the time dimension. A negative charge (say an electron) is really an antimatter particle. A proton is composed of three quarks, one of which is antimatter, and two of the three quarks in a neutron are antimatter. By placing the "sign" of a charge with the time dimension, one can understand where all the antimatter went when cosmologists ask symmetry questions. It is all around us. Matter/antimatter annihilation occurs only when all of the voids in each particle match dimensionally, which is why the quarks in protons and neutrons coexist; they are not identical. The table could be further subdivided for each entry with more than one dimension missing in which at least one dimension was traveling forward in time and the remaining dimensions traveling backwards in time. Two voids (charges) travelling in the same time direction repel each other because they are trying to occupy the same time and space. "Opposite charges" attract because their opposite time flows pull the voids together and allow the voids to occupy the same space (and hence annihilation). This force between stationary voids which have a time dimension is called the electrostatic force. When the voids are moving, it is called the electromagnetic force. From the above table, one can see why there are only six quarks. Like a crystal, a larger particle can be built up from smaller particles. A composite particle is stable when all three spatial dimensions are in symmetry (i.e. an integer charge number). A particle missing one dimension will attract another particle missing the same dimension with the opposite time flow and missing at least one of the remaining dimensions, and repel those missing the same dimension with the same time flow. The force that governs the making of composite particles is called the strong force. How the strong force behaves (three ways) depends upon the structure of the particle. Symmetry can consist of two voids in one spatial dimension travelling in opposite time directions. It can also be one spatial dimension travelling opposite time directions. Or it can just be a void in each spatial dimension. The three colors associated with each quark is nothing more than the three ways that the voids within a quark may be oriented. The d-quarks have one void and the u-quarks have two voids. Making a composite particle is somewhat like balancing a chemical equation. And by looking at the void symmetry, one can get a feeling for a particle's behavior. For example; a neutron has its voids travelling in opposite time directions (zero net time flow) and a proton has three voids all travelling forward in time (positive net time flow): Neutron ( 0 0 1 +) -> ( 0 0 1 +) | ( 0 1 1 -) -> ( 0 1 1 -) | ( 1 0 1 -) -> ( 0 1 0 +) | ( 0 0 0 -) electron ( 1 1 1 -) antineutrino Geometric structure: + - + - + - When particles break up or combine, there may be a transfer of voids between particles. At the instant of transfer, at least one of the eight virtual particles is involved. The force that transfers a void between particles is called the weak force. Since this transfer of voids takes place within a composite particle, the weak force is only effective for a short time and hence for only a short distance. The electrostatic, electromagnetic, strong, and weak force are all the result of the force between voids due to their time flow direction, whereas gravity is the result of the force between voids due to their physical existence. Thus one could look at gravity as being orthogonal to the other forces and hence cannot be unified with them, other than they are all the result of a void. Gravity results in a larger single void to reduce the distortion to space/time whereas the other forces all result in a combination of individual voids in trying to eliminate the space/time distortion. That is why gravity is weaker than the other forces (reduce verse eliminate). EXPLANATION (PROOF) OF WHY THE UNIVERSE IS COMPOSED OF ELECTRONS, PROTONS, AND NEUTRONS: A stable (long lived) particle is one in which all three spatial dimensions have a net void each. From the above table, an electron fits this requirement right away. The next step would be to consider groups consisting of particles missing one and two dimensions: One Dimension Two Dimensions 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Now list all possible combinations of one and two dimensional particles: 011 011 011 101 101 101 110 110 110 001 010 100 001 010 100 001 010 100 Now list all possible combinations of one and two dimensional particles: 011+ 011+ 011+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 001- 010- 100- 001- 010- 100- 001- 010- 100- 011- 011- 011- 101- 101- 101- 110- 110- 110- 001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 001+ 010+ 100+ 011- 011- 011- 101- 101- 101- 110- 110- 110- 001- 010- 100- 001- 010- 100- 001- 010- 100- Now select those pairs which can be attached. That is they have a (+) and a (-) void in the dimension. Note that two one-dimensional or two two-dimensional joining is matter/antimatter annihilation and thus cannot exist. 011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110- 001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+ In all cases, there is a dangling void. Thus there can be no stable joining between just one one-dimensional void and one two- dimensional void. One solution would be to add one more one-dimensional void to balance the dangling void, just like a chemical equation. All possible additions are: 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011+ 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110+ 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- 110- Only the dangling void can attract the one-dimensional void. This reduces the combinations to: 011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110- 001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+ 101+ 110+ 101- 110- 011+ 110+ 011- 110- 011+ 101+ 011- 101- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 111+ 111+ 111- 111- 111+ 111+ 111- 111- 111+ 111+ 111- 111- Note that by adding all the voids in each spatial dimension you get either 111- or 111+. A particle whose sum is 111- is the antimatter equivalent of 111+. Since one of the basic assumptions was that there is no preferred coordinate system, including time, then these twelve particles are really the same. Due to the right handed coordinate system chose, each of the six particles is simply the same particle rotated one way or another. This three quark particle is stable because all three spatial voids are neutralized ( 0 + with a 0 -), resulting in a sum of 111. Thus it is natural to call this particle a neutron. The only other solution would be to add one more two-dimensional void to balance the dangling void, just like a chemical equation. All possible additions are: 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001+ 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 001- 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010+ 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 010- 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100+ 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- 100- Only the dangling void can attract the two-dimensional void (otherwise there would still be an unbalanced dimension). This reduces the combinations to : 011+ 011+ 011- 011- 101+ 101+ 101- 101- 110+ 110+ 110- 110- 001- 010- 001+ 010+ 001- 100- 001+ 100+ 010- 100- 010+ 100+ 010- 001- 010+ 001+ 100- 001- 100+ 001+ 100- 010- 100+ 010+ ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- 000- 000- 000+ 000+ 000- 000- 000+ 000+ 000- 000- 000+ 000+ Note that by adding all the voids in each spatial dimension you get either 000- or 000+. A particle whose sum is 000- is the antimatter equivalent of 000+. Since one of the basic assumptions was that there is no preferred coordinate system, including, time then these twelve particles are really the same. Due to time, the six 000- are the same as the six 000+. Due to the right handed coordinate system chosen, each of the six particles is simply the same particle rotated one way or another. This three quark particle is stable because all three spatial dimension are cancelled (1+ with a 1-), resulting in a sum of 000. This is a particle with a charge of one. Thus it is natural to call this particle a proton. NEUTRONS: THE BINDING BUILDING BLOCKS By looking at the geometric structure of the quarks that make up a neutron, one can easily see that there are two negative attachment points and two positive attachment points. This allows neutrons to bind to themselves or to protons. Protons only have two positive attachment points. Thus protons cannot bind to themselves. Neutron to Neutron Neutron to Proton ( Star ) ( Helium nucleus ) + - + - + - +---+ - - - - + - + - +---+ - + - - For more than one proton to be in an atom's nucleus there must be neutrons to bind them together. Geometry can be used to show why the neutrons do not increase uniformly in the periodic table as well as why there are isotopes of various stabilities. Neutron stars can form but not proton stars because only neutrons can bind to themselves.

[ Physics ][ Sumeria ]